题目：Crowdsourcing Electric Mobility for Omni-Sharing Distributed Energy Resources
摘要：Ever-increasing coupling of energy and mobility sectors is underway in our cities. However, whether and how to use such coupling to optimize the portfolio and operations of urban energy assets has rarely been studied. We fill this gap by studying "omni-sharing," which is a novel business model (beyond "peer-to-peer" energy sharing) that allows a distributed energy resource (DER) community to crowdsource electricity from shared electric vehicles (EVs). We analytically model two salient features of omni-sharing operations: the optimal payment to crowdsourced EV drivers, and the cost allocation among internal DERs. In doing so, we enrich the existing newsvendor cooperative game theory results by generalizing the newsvendor model with a variable underage cost structure, induced by the endogeneity of the energy-crowdsourcing cost. We prove (and quantify with data on residential energy consumption and ride-sharing markets) that omni-sharing can reduce the total storage capacity needed and the expected energy cost for the DER community. To account for intra-day energy demand fluctuation and supply uncertainty, we also develop a real-time dispatch model. Our analysis shows the value of omni-sharing as an additional channel of efficiently matching local energy supply and demand. Omni-sharing exerts mixed (but on balance positive) externalities: positive effects on ride-share drivers, and moderate and reducible negative effects on ride-share passengers and platforms. Moreover, omni-sharing enhances the urban grid's self-sufficiency in terms of both peak load reduction and ramping mitigation. This paper strengthens our understanding of energy-mobility orchestration toward enabling smart cities.